April 24, 2024

Exploring the Versatility of Molybdenum: Properties, Applications, and Global Significance

Molybdenum is a silvery-grey metal with many important industrial uses. Molybdenum is a hard metal with a high melting point of 2,610°C (4,730°F). It has a relatively low vapor pressure and good thermal conductivity. These characteristics make molybdenum resistant to heat and wear. It is one of the refractory metals—a group of metals with unusually high melting points.

Molybdenum also has some unique chemical properties. It forms a protective oxide layer on its surface that prevents further oxidation, giving it excellent corrosion resistance. Molybdenum is not attacked by normal acids, alkalis or salt water. Only mixtures of nitric and hydrofluoric acids can dissolve it. This corrosion resistance is a key attribute that enables its use in many industrial applications.

Alloying Properties

While pure molybdenum has some important properties, it is often used as an alloying agent to enhance the characteristics of other metals. When alloyed with certain metals like steel, molybdenum increases hardness, toughness, wear resistance and high-temperature strength. Some of the most common molybdenum alloys include:

– High speed steel – Adding 2-5% molybdenum to steel improves hardness at higher temperatures needed for cutting tools.

– Stainless steel – Molybdenum in amounts of 2-3% increases corrosion resistance of stainless steels, especially against oxidizing acids. This accounts for its large use in this alloy.

– Tool steels – Moly steels containing 5-10% molybdenum impart extreme hardness and corrosion resistance for dies and cutting tools.

– Superalloys – Nickel and cobalt-based superalloys used in turbines contain 3-10% molybdenum for strength and creep resistance at high operating temperatures.

Industrial Applications

Due to its distinctive properties, molybdenum finds applications across many important industries. Some of its major uses are discussed below:

Petrochemical Industry

Molybdenum alloys like Hastelloy are used to process corrosive chemicals in refineries. They form tubes, pipes, vessels and valves due to their resistance against acids and corrosion under harsh conditions at elevated temperatures.

Steel Production

Alloying steel with molybdenum increases strength and wear resistance of critical parts for heavy machinery like construction equipment. It also improves the welding characteristics of steel.

Aerospace Industry

Superalloys containing molybdenum are used to make gas turbine engine parts that experience high stresses and temperatures in aircraftjet engines. It enables better efficiency and performance of aeroengines.

Chemical Processing Industry

The corrosion resistance of molybdenum makes it suitable for the manufacture of reactors, columns and pipes used to process corrosive chemicals like acids, alkalis and salts in various industries.


Molybdenum compounds are also used as pigments in ceramics, catalysts and fertilizers. Molybdenum steel finds use in drill bits. Surgical implants sometimes use molybdenum coatings too for joint replacements due to its biocompatibility.

Global Production and Demand

China is currently the world’s largest producer of molybdenum, followed by the United States, Chile and Peru. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, global molybdenum mine production was estimated to be 260,000 metric tons in 2020.

Around half of molybdenum production is consumed by the steel industry, about a fourth by the chemical industry and the remaining in superalloys and other applications. Demand for molybdenum is closely tied to manufacturing and construction activity globally. High strength steels and stainless steels containing molybdenum are increasing in automotive, infrastructure and oil & gas sectors which is driving demand higher.

Given its importance in durable, high-performance materials, molybdenum will likely continue to be of strategic value to many industries in the future too. Its unique properties enable applications that improve energy efficiency, reduce emissions and make materials longer-lasting. Research is also looking at developing new molybdenum based catalysts, pigments and ceramics to increase its uses further.

Molybdenum is a corrosion resistant metal with outstanding mechanical properties at high temperatures. As both a primary metal and alloying agent, it finds diverse applications in areas like energy, chemicals, aerospace, automotive and construction. Its versatility makes molybdenum indispensable to modern industrialized economies and developing new advanced technologies. With growing worldwide demand from manufacturing sectors, molybdenum’s strategic importance as a critical metal looks set to rise in the coming years.

1. Source: Coherent Market Insights, Public sources, Desk research
2. We have leveraged AI tools to mine information and compile it