June 21, 2024

Hydrogen Vehicles: The Rise of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles As A Clean Energy Alternative



Hydrogen vehicles, also known as fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), are emerging as a promising clean energy alternative to gasoline-powered vehicles. FCEVs run on hydrogen fuel and produce electricity through an electrochemical reaction with oxygen in the air. The only emissions produced are water and heat. With zero direct emissions and the potential for low greenhouse gas emissions depending on how the hydrogen is produced, FCEVs can help reduce both air pollution and climate change impacts from the transportation sector.

How Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles Work

In an FCEV, hydrogen gas is stored in an on-board tank. When the vehicle is started, the hydrogen flows to the fuel cell stack where it reacts with oxygen from the air to produce electricity. This electricity powers the vehicle’s electric motor and drives the wheels. Some key advantages of this process compared to electric batteries include faster refueling times similar to gas stations and longer driving ranges. The only byproducts are water and heat – there are no harmful tailpipe emissions.

The main components of a fuel cell powertrain include the fuel cell stack that generates electricity, an electric motor, hydrogen storage tanks, and a cooling system. Advanced materials and engineering allow manufacturers to package these systems efficiently while maintaining safety and performance. As the technology matures, costs are also coming down which will further accelerate adoption.

Challenges and Infrastructure Requirements

While hydrogen fuel cell vehicles have significant potential environmental and practical benefits compared to combustion engines, there are still challenges holding back widespread commercialization and consumer adoption. Producing and delivering hydrogen fuel is currently more expensive than gasoline. Establishing a network of retail hydrogen fueling stations also requires major initial investments similar to the early development of gasoline stations a century ago.

Currently there are only a few hundred publicly accessible hydrogen stations globally, most located in California. To achieve mass market viability will require thousands more nationwide, with standardization between companies. The auto industry is working closely with energy providers and governments to expand hydrogen infrastructure in tandem with new FCEV models entering the market. Additional research is also improving hydrogen storage solutions to increase vehicle range and fuel up times.

Manufacturers increasing Hydrogen Vehicle offerings

To accelerate the hydrogen transition, major automakers are investing heavily in fuel cell technology and ramping up production of passenger FCEVs. Toyota was the early leader with its Mirai sedan and has sold over 10,000 globally since 2015. Hyundai launched the Nexo SUV in 2018 and now has over 10 hydrogen stations supporting owners. Both companies have signaled they see FCEVs as a long term solution alongside electric batteries.

In Europe, Germany’s BMW and Sweden’s Volvo have unveiled concept fuel cell vehicles with plans to launch production models. Both companies note hydrogen’s advantage for commercial trucks and buses requiring long range and quick refueling over charged electric batteries. China is also investing aggressively in both FCEV and hydrogen fueling infrastructure with a goal of having 1 million FCEVs on its roads by 2030.

Role of governments in supporting adoption

Given the large upfront costs associated with hydrogen fuel production, storage, and distribution networks, commitments from national and local governments will be critical to help kickstart commercialization. Major economies are providing purchase incentives and subsidies for hydrogen fueling stations. California continues to lead the US with a comprehensive plan involving utility companies. The European Union has outlined funding to help deploy 400 stations across Europe by 2025.

Countries see developing domestic hydrogen economies as strategic for energy independence and high-paying cleantech jobs of the future. Mass deployment of FCEVs would also help governments meet climate targets set in international agreements. Coordinated efforts between governments, energy companies, and automakers give hope that the necessary infrastructure investments can be made over the next decade to allow hydrogen vehicles broader consumer appeal. Achieving cost parity with conventional vehicles remains the major benchmark.


While still in early adoption stages, hydrogen fuel cell technology presents an compelling long term alternative for personal transportation with clear environmental advantages over internal combustion. With ongoing technology advancements and supportive policies, the required backing from both industry and governments seems within reach to transition vehicles away from petroleum towards hydrogen fuel produced from zero-emission renewable sources like solar or wind power. FCEVs have the ability to make meaningful reductions in urban air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions if hydrogen infrastructure can expand quickly. Continued progress in the coming years will determine if they can succeed on a mass scale.


  1. Source: Coherent Market Insights, Public sources, Desk research
  2. We have leveraged AI tools to mine information and compile it